The brownish ones are carnelian beads, which other ancient peoples also used, but in Ancient India, they found a way to add designs to them which look like being etched, but was actually done with a bit of chemistry know-how using soda. Furthermore, it looks like the markings on these beads represented things and conveyed information - not just decoration!
The other type of beads popular in Ancient India were glass beads (like marbles) and this is what I used in my book.
The "Identifiers" in RHUNA are sort of like bead jewellery for the hand/wrist with colour codes to identify the wearer's residence, family group and occupation. It would look something like this:
These days, beads are as popular as ever; from cheap plastic ones to fancy and expensive ones, in all kinds of colours, sizes and arrangements. They can be strung up to make a necklace, or used in embroidery for just about everything. It's a great hobby for many people, and others make and sell lovely items with them.